K-12 SSDB News See All News

Are School Shootings Becoming More Frequent? We Ran The Numbers

By Luis Melgar Published on May 21, 2019 If in recent years it seems that school shootings are happening more frequently, occupying public discourse and media coverage, it’s because they are. Although school shootings are still very rare compared to daily gun violence, the data show they are happening more often. It can be hard to measure school shootings...

The End of Police in Schools

By Lauren Camera, Senior Education Writer  Published on June 12, 2020   As demonstrations over the death of George Floyd spread across the country, school districts are reevaluating the use of resource officers. Two days later, Portland Public Schools followed suit, with Superintendent Guadalupe Guerrero announcing that the district will discontinue the regular presence of police...

Academic Research and Reports See All Academics

American Journal of Criminal Justice: A Descriptive Analysis of the Characteristics of School Shootings Across Five Decades

Sarah P. Gammell, Nadine M. Connell & Michael G. Huskey
Research on understanding school shootings has traditionally focused on the individual level factors surrounding several highly publicized mass shooting events such as those in Parkland, Florida and Santa Fe, Texas. However, researchers have recently begun to examine characteristics among other types of shootings on K-12 school campuses, including non-mass and non-fatal shooting incidents. Correlates such the type of firearms used, the number of firearms, the age of the perpetrator, and school level, have been shown to differentially affect the severity of a school shooting incident. The current study provides a descriptive analysis of shooter, school, and incident level characteristics as they relate to the predicting casualties and fatalities in school shooting incidents from 1970–2020. Results suggest that school and incident characteristics are significantly related to school shooting severity. We discuss the importance of broadening the understanding of school shootings to include these other types of incidents. Data from this study come from the Naval Postgraduate School's Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) School Shooting Database (SSDB) (Riedman & O’Neill, 2018). The database is an ongoing, comprehensive list of instances when a firearm was brandished or fired on a K-12 school property and related properties (i.e. school buses or athletic fields) in the United States from January 5, 1970 to November 11, 2020. Information on perpetrator characteristics (e.g. demographics, number of perpetrators), school characteristics (e.g. school type), and gun characteristic (e.g. weapon type, number of weapons) was collected and aggregated for each incident in the database. The database aggregates information from a variety of publicly available primary sources, including peer-reviewed studies, government reports, mainstream media reports, advocacy groups, and private sources. In order to be included in the SSDB, cases were cross-referenced and filtered such that each case, even if appearing in more than one original source, is only included once. More information about the database is available on the CHDS website (https://www.chds.us/ssdb/about/). The database is freely available to researchers.

The efficacy of threat assessments in relations to school shootings

Samantha A. Shaffer
School shootings are very prevalent within the United States. As of right now, there is not a way to predict school shooting behaviors and traits. Since the Columbine shooting in 1999, psychologists have studied this shooting along with other to build assessments to implement within schools. The goal of these assessments is to predict various behaviors that are deemed threatening and use it to de-escalate situations before they occur. However, because of the nature of the assessment there is no way to implement it unless another school shooting occurs. Since there is no way to implement it, there is no way to tell whether they are valid. More research needs to be done to solidify threat assessments and implement them within all schools across the United States.

COMPETENCY-BASED HIGHER EDUCATION FOR POLICING IN THE 21ST CENTURY

JOHN COMISKEY, Monmouth University, KISHON HICKMAN, SUNY Rockland, THOMAS CAREY, Monmouth University
Police education must stay abreast of the nuances and changes in the field. This article identified three meta-focusing events: the Columbine High School shooting (1999); the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks; and the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown (2014), which forever altered policing in the United States. Combined with other less discrete events and circumstances, these three events helped frame 21st-century policing. The new norm of policing raised the questions: What do police officers need to know and what should they be able to do in the performance of their duties? What is the knowledge and base of policing as a profession? Using the Delphi technique, this study developed the intellectual infrastructure for an undergraduate degree in police studies. The results provide a basis for a core curriculum that supports professional police studies as opposed to criminal justice programs for educating police officers.

Reported Stories

Date Source Link
December 31, 2019 NewStatesman https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/staggers/2019/12/z-gen-z-kids-putting-world-shame
December 13, 2019 ABC News https://abcnews.go.com/US/schools-shootings-common-incidents-radar-2019/story?id=67040402
December 4, 2019 Carolina Public Press. https://carolinapublicpress.org/29604/new-funding-may-help-school-districts-enhance-security-prevent-violence/
December 2, 2019 TMJ-4 Milwaukee https://www.tmj4.com/news/i-team/there-have-been-8-school-shootings-in-wisconsin-since-2009
November 15, 2019 ABC News. https://abcnews.go.com/US/entire-community-changed-forever-california-shooting-victims-face/story?id=67034630
November 14, 2019 ABC News. https://abc7.com/santa-clarita-attack-is-latest-in-rising-number-of-us-school-shootings/5698203/
November 14, 2019 ABC News. https://abc7.com/school-shootings-in-america-see-a-map-of-all-incidents-from-2010-2019/5697308/
September 18, 2019 MSN. https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/sandy-hook-promise-psa-gives-graphic-look-at-school-shootings/ar-AAHtUsH
September 18, 2019 The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/sep/18/sandy-hook-group-releases-hard-to-watch-school-shooting-awareness-video
September 18, 2019 USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/09/18/sandy-hook-promise-psa-gives-graphic-look-school-shootings/2301317001/
September 18, 2019 MarketWatch. https://www.marketwatch.com/story/warning-this-sandy-hook-promise-psa-may-be-exceedingly-difficult-to-watch-2019-09-18
September 18, 2019 NewYork Post. https://nypost.com/2019/09/18/this-chilling-back-to-school-psa-shows-the-new-normal-for-americas-kids/
September 4, 2019 MLive. https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/09/48m-michigan-high-school-designed-to-thwart-active-shooters.html
September 3, 2019 Cognoscenti. https://www.wbur.org/cognoscenti/2019/09/03/gun-violence-back-to-school-stephen-lane
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August 22, 2019 Government Technology. https://www.govtech.com/biz/School-Safety-Package-Includes-AI-Social-Media-Monitoring.html
August 21, 2019 Montana Public Radio. https://www.mtpr.org/post/25-years-later-parents-butte-school-shooting-victim-speak-out
August 20, 2019 Montana Public Radio. https://www.mtpr.org/post/montana-summit-addresses-school-shootings
August 12, 2019 France 24. https://www.france24.com/en/video/20190812-bulletproof-backpacks-sales-soar-us-after-shootings
August 9, 2019 KXII News. https://www.kxii.com/content/news/Grayson-College-hosts-Why-Teens-Kill-seminar-530660261.html
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May 13, 2019 The Crime Report https://thecrimereport.org/2019/05/12/nations-school-attack-toll-202-deaths-since-1970/
May 11, 2019 The New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/05/11/us/school-shootings-united-states.html
May 11, 2019 Chattanooga Times Free Press. https://www.timesfreepress.com/news/opinion/times/story/2019/may/11/sohn-school-shootings-more-numerous-reported/494448/
May 10, 2019 FOX17 Nashville. https://fox17.com/news/local/tennessee-among-states-with-most-incidents-involving-guns-at-schools-since-1970
May 8, 2019 U.S. News & World Report. https://www.usnews.com/news/top-news/articles/2019-05-08/factbox-us-states-with-the-most-and-fewest-school-shootings
May 8, 2019 Reuters https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colorado-shooting-states-factbox/factbox-u-s-states-with-the-most-and-fewest-school-shootings-idUSKCN1SE2EX
May 8, 2019 The Inquirer. https://www.philly.com/news/nation-world/colorado-school-shooting-2019-stem-highlands-ranch-viral-picture-20190508.html
May 7, 2019 Refinery29. https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2019/05/232069/school-shootings-europe-usa-differences-marieke-nijkamp-author-essay
April 28, 2019 The News-Gazette. http://www.news-gazette.com/arts-entertainment/local/2019-04-28/jeffrey-eric-jenkinsreview-the-exhale-will-make-you-hug-your
April 23, 2019 Times of San Diego. https://timesofsandiego.com/opinion/2019/04/23/opinion-the-hard-truths-about-how-to-prevent-school-shootings/
April 19, 2019 New York Daily News https://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/ny-how-america-changed-twenty-years-after-columbine-20190418-kdf37bfggzazfdtiijg3wesiua-story.html
April 19, 2019 Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/graphics/school-shooters-similarities/
April 19, 2019 NBC CT. https://www.nbcconnecticut.com/news/national-international/School-Shootings-Since-Columbine-508503771.html
April 19, 2019 Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/sfl-columbine-20-years-clone-20190419-story.html
April 19, 2019 The Seattle Times. https://www.seattletimes.com/opinion/what-we-know-about-school-mass-shootings-since-columbine-and-how-to-prevent-them/
April 19, 2019 New Jersey On-Line. https://www.nj.com/hudson/2019/04/20-years-ago-the-columbine-massacre-changed-everything-about-school-security.html
April 19, 2019 Arkansas Democrat Gazette. https://www.arkansasonline.com/news/2019/apr/17/report-school-safety-measures-fall-shor/
April 18, 2019 CALmatters. https://calmatters.org/articles/commentary/school-shootings/
April 17, 2019 The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/graphics/school-shooters-similarities/?mod=e2tw
April 16, 2019 Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2019/04/16/study-theres-no-evidence-that-hardening-schools-make-kids-safer-gun-violence-actually-works/
April 16, 2019 New York Daily News. https://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/ny-poll-shows-parents-think-schools-are-less-safe-20190416-zbjjeswjsvanxdivqmsfyskypa-story.html
April 2, 2019 Government Technology. https://www.govtech.com/em/emergency-blogs/disaster-zone/k-12-school-shooting-database.html
March 13, 2019 WUSA 9. https://www.wusa9.com/article/news/verify-yes-2018-was-the-worst-year-for-gun-violence-on-school-grounds/65-6520e8f8-e032-4182-8997-d0d0ff6a6fe2
February 14, 2019 New Statesman. https://www.newstatesman.com/world/north-america/2019/02/life-after-parkland
February 13, 2019 Penn Live. https://www.pennlive.com/news/2019/02/pa-hands-out-money-to-boost-school-safety-but-districts-struggle-to-find-the-right-ways-to-prevent-shootings.html
February 12, 2019 WAMU. https://wamu.org/story/19/02/12/multiple-victim-school-shootings-are-rare-but-they-are-becoming-more-common-and-more-deadly/
February 12, 2019 Jezebel. https://jezebel.com/school-shootings-and-the-cheerily-gruesome-world-of-di-1830690699
February 11, 2019 Politifact. https://www.politifact.com/florida/statements/2019/feb/11/alcee-hastings/was-there-one-school-shooting-week-2018-florida-la/
February 8, 2019 WKMG News 6. https://www.clickorlando.com/news/gun-violence/gun-violence-a-growing-threat-at-american-schools
February 8, 2019 The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/school-shooters-usually-show-these-signs-of-distress-long-before-they-open-fire-our-database-shows-111242
February 5, 2019 Inquirer.net. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1081759/p2fb-13-year-old-boy-detained-after-telling-siri-im-going-to-shoot-up-a-school
February 3, 2019 Newsweek. https://www.newsweek.com/13-year-old-student-arrested-after-telling-siri-im-going-shoot-school-1316294
Date Source Link
December 26, 2018 The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/school-shooting-greeting-cards-parkland-florida-video-a8700066.html
December 18, 2018 Campus Security & Life Safety. https://campuslifesecurity.com/articles/2018/12/18/data-shows-2018-worst-year-on-record-for-gun-violence-in-schools.aspx
December 14, 2018 Time. http://time.com/5479993/gun-deaths-us-cdc/
December 14, 2018 Rolling Stone. https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/american-gun-violence-statistics-768853/
December 13, 2018 Governing. http://www.governing.com/topics/public-justice-safety/gov-school-shooting-panic-button.html
December 12, 2018 The Inquirer. http://www2.philly.com/news/report-gun-violence-school-shootings--20181212.html
December 12, 2018 BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-46507514
December 10, 2018 Yahoo News. https://news.yahoo.com/imagining-school-shooting-gunmans-eyes-sandy-hook-promise-releases-chilling-new-video-221435210.html
December 10, 2018 Vox. https://www.vox.com/2018/12/10/18134232/gun-violence-schools-mass-shootings
December 10, 2018 Taipei Times. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2018/12/10/2003705859
December 9, 2018 Slate. https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/12/school-gun-violence-reaches-new-record-in-2018.html
December 9, 2018 The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/dec/09/sandy-hook-promise-gun-violence-school-shooting-report-2018
December 9, 2018 RT. https://www.rt.com/usa/446017-gun-violence-schools-america/
November 13, 2018 THE Journal. https://thejournal.com/articles/2018/11/13/database-provides-accurate-accounting-of-school-shootings.aspx
October 24, 2018 American Security Today. https://americansecuritytoday.com/k-12-school-firearm-incidents-everyone-know-multi-video/
October 15, 2018 Campus Safety Magazine. https://www.campussafetymagazine.com/safety/k-12-school-shooting-statistics-everyone-should-know/
October 13, 2018 NPR. https://www.npr.org/2018/10/13/656979284/new-findings-on-school-shootings-hurricane-shuts-classrooms-and-midterm-ballots-
October 12, 2018 VICE News. https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/yw9kqy/the-government-is-finally-tracking-school-shootings-the-numbers-are-alarming
October 11, 2018 Campus Security & Life Safety. https://campuslifesecurity.com/articles/2018/10/11/students-create-database-of-every-k12-school-shooting.aspx?admgarea=Topics&m=1
October 9, 2018 WIVB Buffalo, NY. https://www.wivb.com/news/national/database-shows-information-on-school-shootings-in-us/1509455151
October 9, 2018 KOLD Tucson, AZ. http://www.tucsonnewsnow.com/2018/10/09/new-database-includes-school-shootings-past-decades/
October 9, 2018 WAVY Portsmouth, VA. https://www.wavy.com/news/national/database-shows-information-on-school-shootings-in-us/1509766823
October 9, 2018 WTNH New Haven, CT. https://www.wtnh.com/news/technology/california-students-create-school-shooting-database/1510085657
October 8, 2018 KSBW Monterey, CA. https://www.ksbw.com/article/all-central-coast-school-shootings-documented-in-new-database/23657504
October 8, 2018 WKBN Youngstown, OH. https://www.wkbn.com/news/local-news/database-of-school-shootings-includes-73-shooting-at-rayen-high-school/1509362149
October 1, 2018 Emergency Management. http://www.govtech.com/em/emergency-blogs/disaster-zone/a-school-shooting-database.html
Date Source Link
May 19, 2021 The Marietta Times https://www.mariettatimes.com/news/2021/05/school-security-location-and-context-impact-armed-debate/
May 7, 2021 YR Media https://yr.media/news/idaho-rigby-middle-school-shooting-kierra-frazier/
April 29, 2021 The Bold (University of Colorado) https://theboldcu.com/2021/04/a-horrible-history-colorados-plague-of-mass-shootings/
April 14, 2021 Wilton Bulletin https://www.wiltonbulletin.com/news/article/Knoxville-school-shooting-serves-as-stark-16099830.php
April 14, 2021 The Stamford Advocate https://www.stamfordadvocate.com/news/article/Knoxville-school-shooting-serves-as-stark-16099830.php
April 14, 2021 New Canaan Advertiser https://www.ncadvertiser.com/news/article/Knoxville-school-shooting-serves-as-stark-16099830.php
April 14, 2021 Patriot News (Pennsylvania) https://www.pennlive.com/opinion/2021/04/knoxville-school-shooting-serves-as-stark-reminder-of-a-familiar-but-preventable-threat-opinion.html
April 14, 2021 The Intelligencer https://www.theintelligencer.com/news/article/Knoxville-school-shooting-serves-as-stark-16099830.php
April 14, 2021 The Telegraph https://www.thetelegraph.com/news/article/Knoxville-school-shooting-serves-as-stark-16099830.php
April 14, 2021 The Conversation https://theconversation.com/knoxville-school-shooting-serves-as-stark-reminder-of-a-familiar-but-preventable-threat-158916
March 31, 2021 Patch News https://patch.com/us/across-america/school-violence-u-s-thwarted-when-others-speak-report
February 18, 2021 Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.contemporarypediatrics.com/view/can-armed-officers-reduce-injury-and-death-in-school-shootings
February 16, 2021 Minnesota Public Radio https://www.mprnews.org/story/2021/02/16/research-finds-armed-officers-increases-mortality-at-school-shootings
February 14, 2021 WUFT https://www.wuft.org/news/2021/02/15/three-years-later-former-marjory-stoneman-douglas-students-at-uf-continue-to-advocate-heal-and-remember/