AI and Machine Learning

This module provides a roadmap to understanding the relationship between advancements and increasing utilization of artificial intelligence, robotics, automation, and machine learning, and the impact this will have on the economy and employment.

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Resource List

These resources provide a baseline of understanding, but as the strategic environment continues to evolve, new data will become available.


  • Pew Research Center: The Pew Research Center is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that seeks to inform the public of and support sound decision-making based on trends, issues, and attitudes in national and international politics, science, religion, economics, and demography.
  • World Economic Forum: The World Economic Forum is a nonprofit foundation that seeks to shape global, regional, and industrial agendas through engagement with political and business leaders throughout the world.
  • MIT Technology Review: The MIT Technology Review is a media organization that aims to inform public knowledge and encourage contributions to the evolution of technology by publishing articles covering developments in technology and their impacts.
  • International Federation of Robotics: The International Federation of Robotics (IFR) is a non-profit organization that conducts research on trends in robotics and markets utilizing robotics, stimulating robotics research and coordinating with other national and international robotics organizations.
  • Center for European Economic Research: The Center for European Economic Research (ZEW) is a non- profit institute that focuses on research of European economies and institutions.
  • Robotic Industries Association: The Robotic Industries Association (RIA) is a robotics trade organization consisting of manufacturers, component suppliers, researchers, and consultants that seeks to drive innovation, growth, and safety within the robotics industry through education and advancement of robotics and automation technologies.
  • Oxford Martin School at the University of Oxford: The Oxford Martin School is a research organization that invests in multidisciplinary research projects aimed at addressing global challenges.

Recent Publications and Journal Ariticle:

  • Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy: This publication provides an overview of the impact of information technologies on employment opportunities, wages, employee skills, and the economy.
  • An Economy That Works: Job Creation and America’s Future: This report examines employment trends in the United States following the 2008 economic recession with the goal of projecting future job creation and the changing nature of employment in the United States.
  • The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation?: This report examines the susceptibility of over 700 distinct U.S. occupations to automation (in terms of a probability of automation), drawing conclusions about how susceptible various occupations are to automation based on average wages and educational attainment of employees in each occupation.
  • Racing With or Against the Machine? Evidence from Europe: This ZEW report examines the economy-wide impact of technology replacing employment in Europe, considering the impact of technology replacing labor, the associated decreased costs of products and services associated with automation, and the increased investment of accrued capital by individuals owning robotics and automation technologies.
  • How Technology is Destroying Jobs: This MIT Technology Review journal article provides an overview of artificial intelligence, robotics, and automation, with a particular focus on historical economic, employment, and job sectors trends, projecting the impact increased automation will have on all three.
  • How Human-Robot Teamwork Will Upend Manufacturing: This MIT Technology Review journal article examines the new trend of robots working along with humans to enable humans to more effectively and efficiently execute job responsibilities.
  • Where Machines Could Replace Humans—And Where They Can’t (Yet): This McKinsey Quarterly article examines the automation potential of over 2,000 work activities from over 800 occupations, drawing conclusions about the automation potential across 8 work activity categories and 19 industries.
  • The Technology Revolution and the Restructuring of the Global Economy: This article examines the impact rapid technological innovation, digital electronics, and information technology has on the global economy, economic growth, and globalization.
    • Citation: Colombo, Umberto. “The Technology Revolution and the Restructuring of the Global Economy.” Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives (1988): 23-31.
  • The Next Production Revolution: Key Issues and Policy Proposals: This article discusses some of the broad impacts advances in technology, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and robotics are having on manufacturing and productivity, and how this impact will evolve in the future.
  • AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs: This Pew Research Center report provides highlights from and analysis of survey responses from over 2,500 technology and internet experts on the impact technology, robotics, and automation will have on the employment by 2025.

Other Resources:

  • Technology and People: The Great Job-Creating Machine: This Deloitte report provides a historical examination of the impact of technology on employment over the past 150 years in England and Wales, with the goal of assessing the ways in which technology has continually evolved employment, particularly examining the ways in which technology has created new economic sectors and revolutionized existing sectors in ways that would have been difficult to predict.
  • Executive Summary World Robotics 2016 Industrial Robots: This executive summary from the IFR World Robotics 2016 report provides information on global trends within the robotics field, specifically providing information on sales and deliveries of robotics to major economic sectors and countries.
  • Market Overview Presentation from the IFR World Robotics Press Conference: This presentation from the IFR World Robotics Press Conference provides highlights from the IFR World Robotics 2016 report.
  • Amplifying Human Potential: Towards Purposeful Artificial Intelligence (CEO Report): This Infosys publication focuses on the impact of robotics and automation on employment and businesses, identifying obstacles to appreciating the fullest potential of robotics and automation in industry and suggesting actions for organization to take to be successful as automation and robotics revolutionize modern businesses.
  • Artificial Intelligence Doesn’t Just Cut Costs, It Expands Business Brainpower: This Forbes article discusses the current benefits and potential future benefits of artificial intelligence for businesses.
  • How to Build an Inclusive Future in the Time of AI: This article, prepared for the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2017, focuses on four areas in which business leaders should focus in order to ensure an inclusive work environment and a productive workforce in the future.
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution: What it Means, How to Respond: This World Economic Forum article focuses on the fourth industrial revolution, the digital revolution, the challenges and opportunities of the digital revolution, and its current and future impact on society, business, employment, and government.
  • North American Robotics Market Sets New Records in 2015: This press release provides information on the sales and shipments of industrial robots in North America during 2015.
  • 3 Ways Business Leaders Can Use AI Ethically: This article, prepared for the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2017, focuses on goals for business leaders to capitalize on advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning.
  • The Future is Automated. Here’s How We Can Prepare for It: This article, prepared for the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2017, focuses on ways businesses and employees are beginning to utilize and correspondingly adapt business practices and work activities as automation and artificial intelligence are implemented.
  • Smart Robots Can Now Work Right Next to Auto Workers: This MIT Technology Review article provides an overview of how robots are working alongside humans in a South Carolina BMW plant.
  • 2017 is the Year Healthcare Goes Sci-Fi: This article, prepared for the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2017, focuses on the impact that artificial intelligence and machine learning are currently having and will have in the future on health care.
  • Agiletown: The Relentless March of Technology and London’s Response: This Deloitte report examines the susceptibility of various occupations to automation in the United Kingdom, particularly in London.
  • The Third Industrial Revolution: This article provides an overview of the next major industrial revolution as digital technologies, artificial intelligence, and robotic begin revolutionizing the world
  • Watson Calling? The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Business: This article discusses some current, well-known applications of artificial intelligence with a brief description of how artificial intelligence may impact employment in the future.

These materials were developed as an initiative of the Advanced Thinking in Homeland Security (HSx) curriculum at the Center for Homeland Defense and Security.

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